Categories for Disability Education
- Autism Spectrum Disorders: A behaviorally defined group of disorders characterized by an uneven developmental profile and a pattern of qualitative impairments in social interaction, communication and restricted repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behaviors, interest, and activities, with onset in early childhood.
- Blind / Visually Impaired: A medically verified condition accompanied by limitations in sight that interfere with acquiring information or interaction with the environment.
- Deaf / Hard of Hearing: A diminished sensitivity to sound that is expressed in terms of standard audiological measures.
- Developmental Cognitive Disability: Significantly sub-average general intellectual functioning resulting in or associated with concurrent deficits in adaptive behavior; either, Mild to Moderate (MMI) or Severe-Profound (MSMI).
- Developmentally Delayed (Early Childhood Special Education, Birth - 7 only): A substantial delay or disorder in development or an identifiable sensory, physical, mental or social/emotional condition or impairment known to hinder normal development.
- Emotional / Behavioral Disorder: An established pattern characterized by severely aggressive or impulsive behaviors, severely withdrawn or anxious behaviors, generally pervasive unhappiness, depression or side mood swings or severely disordered though processes manifested by unusual behavior patterns, atypical communication styles or distorted interpersonal relationships.
- Other Health Disabilities: A broad range of medically diagnosed chronic and associated acute health conditions that may be accompanied by limited strength, endurance and alertness, including heightened or diminished alertness to environmental stimuli that adversely affect educational performance to the extent special education and related services may be needed.
- Physically Impaired: A medically diagnosed chronic physical impairment, either congenital or acquired, that adversely affects physical or academic functioning.
- Severely Multiply Impaired: Learner has severe learning and developmental problems resulting from two or more disability conditions.
- Specific Learning Disability: A significant discrepancy between one’s general intellectual ability and academic achievement in one or more of the following areas: oral expression, listening comprehension, mathematical calculation or reasoning, basic reading skills, reading comprehension and written expression.
- Speech / Language Impairment: A communication disorder in fluency, voice, articulation or language.
- Traumatic Brain Injury: An acquired injury to the brain caused by external physical force, resulting in total or partial functional disability or psychosocial impairment, or both, that adversely affects a child’s education performance. The term applies to open or closed head injuries resulting in impairments in one or more areas, such as cognition; language; memory; attention; reasoning; abstract thinking; judgment; problem-solving; and speech. The term does not apply to brain injuries that are congenital or degenerative, or brain injuries induced by birth trauma.
ASD - Autism Spectrum Disorder
AT - Assistive Technology
BIP - Behavior Intervention Plan
BST - Basic Skills Tests
CST - Child Study Team
D/HH - Deaf and Hard of Hearing
DAPE - Developmental Adaptive Physical Education
DCD - Developmental Cognitive Disability
DD - Developmental Delay
EBD - Emotional or Behavioral Disorders
ECFE - Early Childhood Family Education
ECSE - Early Childhood Special Education
ESR - Evaluation Summary Report
ESY - Extended School Year
FAPE - Free Appropriate Public Education
FBA - Functional Behavior Assessment
IDEA - Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
IEE - Independent Education Evaluation
IEP - Individualized Education Program
IFSP - Individual Family Service Plan
IIIP - Individual Interagency Intervention Plan
LRE - Least Restrictive Environment
MCA - Minnesota Comprehensive Assessments
MDE - Minnesota Department of Education
OHD - Other Health Disabilities
PCA - Personal Care Attendant
PI - Physically Impaired
PLEP - Present Level of Educational Performance
RRT - Referral Review Team
S/L - Speech or Language Impairment
SEAC - Special Education Advisory Council
SLD - Specific Learning Disability
SMI - Severely Multiply Impaired
TBI - Traumatic Brain Injury
VI - Visually Impaired
Frequently Used Terms
- Accommodation: allows the student to do the same work as the general education students with a change (i.e. taking tests in a quiet room) that helps them be more successful. This change does not change the rigor of the material being taught.
- Adaptations: word used interchangeable with accommodation.
- Assistive Technology Device: any item, piece of equipment, or product system that is used to increase, maintain, or improve the functional capabilities of children with disabilities.
- Assistive Technology Service: any service that directly assists a student in the selection, acquisition or use of an assistive technology device.
- Case Manager/IEP Manager: the person who coordinates a student's IEP and sees that it is carried out. This person is the first point ot contact for any issues or concerns that you may have.
- Child Study Team: team that determines if an evaluation is warranted.
- Consent: means that you say "yes." Consent means that you understand and agree in writing to the activity that is being requested, such as an evaluation or an IEP.
- Curriculum: the coursework being taught.
- Direct Service: service provided directly to the student from the professional.
- Evaluation: testing and observations used to determine the eligibility of the student for special education services.
- FAPE: free, appropriate public education.
- IDEA-2004: the Individuals with Disabilities Act is the federal special education law that defines the rights of the student.
- Inclusion - Full: student that qualifies for special education that spends the entire school day in the general education classroom.
- Inclusion – Partial: student that qualifies for special education and spends part of the school day in the general education classroom.
- IEE (Independent Educational Evaluation): This is an evaluation provided by a mutually agreed upon independent professional who is not employed by the school system, at not cost to you. The school district is required to give you several choices of qualified professionals to perform the IEE. You can then choose which professional conducts the IEE. To request an IEE, you need to notify, in writing, the Director of Special Services that you disagree with the district's evaluation and are requesting an IEE. Keep a copy for yourself as well. You also have the right to a second opinion at any time at your own expense. The school district must consider this information.
- IEP: An Individualized Education Program is a specifically designed program of services, instruction, and support designed to meet the individual needs of students who require special education and related services.
- IEP Team: the group of people responsible for defining a student's educational plan. The Team must include:
- a parent
- a representative of the district who is authorized to assign resources
- at least one of the student's special education teachers
- at least one of the student's general education teachers
- there may be more team members as appropriate.
- IFSP: An Individual Family Service Plan is a specifically designed program of services or supports to meet the needs of children, birth through age two, who need special education.
- IIIP: Individual Interagency Intervention Plan (IIIP) form is for students from age 3 to 21. The development of the IIP should be completed within 30 school days from completion of the evaluation.
- Indirect Service: consists of work on the student's behalf that ensures access, accommodations and service coordination. It is not direct service, as it does not occur face-to-face with the student on a regularly scheduled basis.
- LRE (Least Restrictive Environment): the educational setting that provides an appropriate program, including special supports needed for the student, in as typical a school environment as possible.
- Modification: a change that lowers the rigor of the material and changes what a test or assignment measures.
- PCA (Personal Care Attendant): a staff person hired to help a child learn skills so he or she can be more independent at home and in the community.
- Positive behavior intervention: a plan to address problem behaviors; it addresses both the source of the behavior and ways to deal with the behavior so the student can behave more appropriately.
- Pre-referral interventions: before referring a child for an evaluation the classroom teacher may plan strategies to see if your child's performance improves with simple changes in curriculum or environment. These are called "pre-referral interventions." At lease two pre-referral interventions must be tried and documented. If the child's performance improves, an evaluation may not be needed. If problems continue, an evaluation will help identify more specific ways to help the child learn.
- Referral: anyone can make a referral for a special education evaluation. Often, when classroom interventions are not successful the classroom teacher may make a referral to the Referral Review Team who will consider whether the child should receive further evaluation. This team, including the parent, decides the areas to be evaluated and the types of evaluation to be completed.
- Related Services: services required to allow a child to benefit from special education. An example may be transportation or occupational therapy.
- Respite Care: care provided for the child so parents can have a break.
- Resource Room: a student may receive his or her special education and related services in the resource room, rather than a general education classroom.
- Special Education: instruction specifically designed to meet the unique needs of a student with disabilities, at no cost to parent(s).